Celtic Culture



History of Ireland

Chronological Order of Ireland's History


3000BC  The Megalithic tombs are constructed,(Newgrange).
700BC   The Celts arrive from parts of Gaul and Britain.
350AD   Christianity reaches Ireland.
432       St. Patrick arrives in Ireland and confronts King Laoghaire who allows him to spread the word of Christianity in Ireland.

700-800      Monastic culture is at its height.
795       Invasion by the Vikings.
1014     Brian Boru defeats the Vikings at Clontarf.
1169     Dermot MacMurrough, the exiled king of Leinster,
seeks help from 'Strongbow'.

1172      King Henry II of England is declared Feudal Lord of Ireland by the Pope.

1366      Statues of Kilkenny belatedly forbid intermarriage
 of English and Irish. Gaelic culture unsuccessfully

1534-40   Insurrection by Lord Offaly fails.
1541        Henry VIII proclaimed King of Ireland.
1558-03   Plantation of Ireland commences under the reign of
 Elizabeth I.

1595-03   Failed uprising of Hugh O'Neil.
1607        Flight of the Earls and leading Ulster families go into exile.

1641        King Charles I's policies cause insurrection in Ulster and Civil War in England.

1649        Cromwell invades Ireland.
1653        Cromwell's opponents stripped of land under the Act
of Settlement.

1689-90    Deposed James II flees to Ireland and is defeated at the Battle of the Boyne.

1704        The Penal Laws enacted: Catholics are barred from voting, education and the military.

1775        American War of Independence instigates Irish unrest.
1782        Grattan's Parliament persuades English to declare Irish independence, butin name only.

1795        The Organge Order is founded.
1798        Uprising by Wolfe Tone and the United Irishmen is crushed.
1801        Ireland becomes part of Britain under the Act of Union.
1829        Catholic Emancipation Act passed after Daniel O'Connell elected as MP.

1845-49     The Great Famine claims over 1 million lives through starvation and disease. Emigration over the next 10 years results in departure of a further 1 million people.

1879-82    The Land War is instigated by Parnell who encourages the boycott of repressive landlords. The 3 'F's are gained for the peasantry: Fixity of Tenure, Fair Rent, Freedom to sell their holding.

1914         The Implementation of Home Rule is postponed because
of the outbreak of World War I.

1916         The Easter Rising is led by Pearse, Connolly and others. The 7 leaders are executed which shifts public opinion in favour of the rebels.

1920-21     Michael Collins masterminds the War of Independence
between Britain and Ireland. The Irish Free State is created (excluding the 6 Northern Counties).

1922-23     Civil war breaks out between the Free State Army and the Irregulars (the IRA).

1926         Fianna Fail party formed and led by DeVelera.
1932         De Valera elected Taoiseach of Ireland.
1939-45    Ireland remains neutral during WW2 despite the offer of a United Ireland having been made to DeVelera if Ireland enters the war on behalf of the Allies.

1948        Ireland declared a Republic by Costello. Northern Ireland is declared a separate entity.

1969        Rioting between Catholics and Protestants. Civil Rights marches. British troops called in to keep order.

1971       Provisional IRA begins campaign to oust British troops from Ireland.

1972       Republic of Ireland joins the European Community.
1985       Anglo-Irish Agreement signed.
1994       Peace Declaration and IRA ceasefire.
1998       "Good Friday" agreement reached promising the creation of a Northern Assembly.

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